Forest, fisheries and disappearing species

Session 09

ES/SO352 Sustainability - Session 09

S9: Forest, fisheries and disappearing species

Required readings:



  • Learn the recent evolution of problems and solutions to Forests, fisheries and disappearing species
  • Understand the impacts of overfishing, but also with some intensive aquacultural practices.
  • Understand the process of Eutrophication, aNd it's links with our farming practices, diets, etc.
  • Understand the potential impacts of the introduction of new species, and know the effects from real cases of introductions in the past.
  • Understand the effects of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the environment and local economy.
  • Learn what a SWOT analysis is (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats), and

1. Percent of habitat remaining


2. Forests: Deforestation & Desertification


2.1. Desertification: Sand & Dust Storms



2.2. Desertification: Actions against


2.3. Desertification: The Great Green Wall


2.4. Soil erosion


2.5. Soil and Water conservation: some actions

  • Get an overview of how terraces, sand dams & trees can transform eroded lands by tackling soil erosion & harvesting rain water thereby enabling farmers to develop.

2.6. Species Planted in Forests

Palm oil_an ecological disaster-Report-En-France24 (3')

Good example of the effects of removing natural forests to plant mono-specific crops of organisms (Palm Tree, in this case): reducing biodiversity in the forest, increasing the release of CO2 and CH4 on the deforested zones, and reducing the fish population in the rivers, with all the negative effects on the local populations (migration to other areas, economic deterioration of local comunities, etc).

2.7. Unsustainable plantations: more on the Palm oil case

The_Palm_Oil_Threat (3:13'). Effects of business as usual with Palm Oil tree plantation in tropical forested areas in Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo). Sustainable Palm Oil is needed (http://www.rspo.org).

You can see an example of a sustainable Palm Oil tree plantation at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fvc4w8xh1Ks

2.8. GMO Trees?: "A Silent Forest"

Video: http://www.wrm.org.uy/Videos/Silent_Forest.html - https://www.createspace.com/207574 - http://globaljusticeecology.org/archive.php?name=getrees&ID=368
"A Silent Forest: The Growing Threat, Genetically Engineered Trees" (David Suzuki)

3. Fisheries: Overfishing


Fisheries (ii): Ending overfishing


3.1. Fisheries (iii): Overfishing_of_the_Oceans.flv (3:35').

Home made video showing some of the effects of overfishing, and basic recommendations for action from consumers to avoid contributing to the overfishing of the oceans. Combining many pictures from natural fish stocks, markets, endangered species, the effects of some fishing gear on turtles among others and music.

3.2. Fisheries (iv): Aquaculture & Environmental Risks


3.3. Eutrophication


Eutrophication (i)

Eutrophication (ii)

1. Basic scheme


2. Oligotrophic vs. Eutrophic


3.4. Fisheries (v): Aquaculture with GMO???


3.5. Fisheries (vi): Effect of Marine Reserves


3.6. Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Mediterranean

Do a SWOT Analysis on the creation of a new MPA in the Mediterranean Sea free_SWOT_analysis_template.pdf (42.01 KB) free_SWOT_analysis_template.pdf (42.01 KB)


An example of the work towards the goal of 10% of seas protected on 2020.
Premiere of the film: Ā«MPAs of the MediterraneanĀ» during the 2012 Forum of Marine Protected Areas in the Mediterranean.

4. Biodiversity decrease: Extinction of species


4.1. Biodiversity decrease: major threats


Source: 2007. UNEP. Global Environmental Outlook http://www.unep.org/geo/geo4.asp

4.2. Biodiversity decrease: Invasive species


4.3. Introduction of exotic species - Don't Release a Pest Freezing is Best (3:08'; or 1st minute, at least).

Cartoon on the dangers of releasing aquarium species to the nature (Caulerpa taxifolia, ...), and how the simple process of freezing them before throwing them at the end of their life can help stop the colonization of exotic species in foreign habitats.

4.4. Biodiversity decrease: Colony Collapse Disorder


4.5. Disappearing species or diminishing populations - Burt's Bees Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) Honey Bees Dying (1:02')

4.6. Additional information

Other references for additional information:

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