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The Wisdom and Virtue of Peer-based Crowds

Session 19

ES/SO352 Sustainability - Session 19

S19: The Wisdom and Virtue of Peer-based Crowds

Required readings:

Slideshow

Goals

  • Learn which are the ingredients that facilitate that the wisdom of crowds can emerge in big groups of people
  • Learn recent examples of human history in which these principles have been indentified, and which were lacking in other cases.
  • Learn the (two-way) link between virtue and commons-based peer production systems
  • Identify the sources of motivation for different people and scenarios, and design your actions adapted to take the most advantage of that knowledge to achieve the goals of your action.

1. The Wisdom of (some) Crowds

We need crowds to be smart for a society to be sustainable.

What are the requirements for a crowd to be smarter than the smartest of the experts on that matter?

2. James Surowiecki (author) in Fox


Other videos:





3. Insights for best crowd motivation

What is the motivation of people/crowds for doing things?
Money? Recognition? ...


Sources of Motivation (i)

Earliest and best known theory of motivation: Abraham H. Maslow, Hierarchy of Needs (1943)

  1. Physiological: air, food, water, sex, sleep, excretion, etc.
  2. Safety: health, personal well being, financial and employment stability, security against accidents, etc.
  3. Belonging: love, intimacy, friendship, family, social cohesion, etc.
  4. Esteem: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respects, etc.
  5. Self actualization

Sources of Motivation (ii)

Information provided in the video, from Daniel Pink’s book: "Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us", published in 2009:

  1. Autonomy (to be self-directed)
  2. Mastery (the desire to get better at stuff)
  3. Purpose (transcendent)

From Daniel Pink (2009): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drive:_The_Surprising_Truth_About_What_Motivates_Us
Based (among others) on http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/wp/wp2005/wp0511.pdf

Other sources of motivation:

  1. Rewards (material)
  2. Social Recognition (imaterial)
  3. Power, control.
  4. ...

Sources of Motivation (iii)

More information: Michael Wu, Ph.D., 2012, Lithosphere.
http://lithosphere.lithium.com/t5/science-of-social-blog/Gamification-101-The-Psychology-of-Motivation/ba-p/21864

4. Clusters of Virtues

According to Benkler & Nissenbaum (2006; see required readings above for full reference)
Commons-based Peer Production systems have a substantial set of participants whose motivations implicate the fours clusters of virtue:

  1. Autonomy, Independence, Liberation
  2. Creatvity, Productivity, Industry
  3. Benevolence, Charity, Generosity, Altruism
  4. Sociability, Camaraderie, Friendship, Cooperation, Civic Virtue


5. Business models using the Wisdom of crowds

Open Enterprise Governance Model (7')

6. Open Enterprise Model for Companies: Sensorica

Open value networks: Tiberus Brastaviceanu at TEDxMontreal (18')


7. Open Enterprise Model for Content: Wikipedia


8. Open Enterprise Model for Software: Tiki

Tiki (also known as Tiki Wiki CMS/Groupware) is a FLOSS application and community which is using the Open Enterprise Business Model to develop their software.


Temporarily at
https://tv.tiki.org/tiki-kaltura_video.php?mediaId=1_xxlrdcbg



9. Organization models using the Wisdom of crowds

  1. 15M (May 2011 -Spain), aka Indignados movement. Occupy Wall Street (equiv. in USA).
  2. Anonymous

10. Recent examples of those organization models

Recent cases that some people might consider coming from the wisdom of crowds: 15M(2011), or Indignados movement.

10.1. A Year of 15M (Barcelona)

Video "A year of 15M" ("Un any de 15M"): Spanish Revolution - Barcelona.


11. Other insteresting initiatives

Bitcoin: FLOSS Peer-to-Peer Digital Currency in expansion

Planning a commons based peer production economy in Ecuador

Open Value Networks: how p2p changes the economy. (Sensorica - http://www.sensorica.co )

Barcelona as a candidate for the 2014 International Volunteering Capital. (6')

We Are Legion: The Story of the Hacktivists - 2012 (93') - Trailer 4'

The Wayseer Manifesto (10')

12. Task (to be done in class)

However, what is the challenge that this type of groups are facing?
(related to the principles stated in the book The wisdom of crowds needed for a crowd to be wise)

Perform a SWOT Analysis of the "15M - Indignados" movement taking into consideration the key concepts discussed previously
Requirements for the wisdom of crowds (According to James Surowiecki)
  1. Diversity (of people)
  2. Independence (of opinion)
  3. Decentralization (in the system)
  4. Aggregation (of the information)
Sources of Motivation
Maslow'43:
  1. Physiological: air, food, water, sex, sleep, excretion, etc.
  2. Safety: health, personal well being, financial and employment stability, security against accidents, etc.
  3. Belonging: love, intimacy, friendship, family, social cohesion, etc.
  4. Esteem: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respects, etc.
  5. Self actualization
Pink'2009:
  1. Autonomy (to be self-directed)
  2. Mastery (the desire to get better at stuff)
  3. Purpose (transcendent)
Others:
  1. Rewards (material)
  2. Social Recognition (imaterial)
  3. Power, control.
  4. ...


12.1. OpenSource Technology to help with the aggregation of information

  1. Wikis, and not just CMS's
    (CMS=Content Management Systems (Blogs, Forums, News boards, links, files, ...)
  2. RSS
    RSS= Really Simple Syndication

Wikis

  • The word "Wiki" comes from "WikiWiki", in Hawaian, which means, "Quick".
  • Wikis were invented in 1995 as computer tools which allow the quick edition of content on internet directly through your web browser, keeping history of changes to the document, and allowing short tags for content markup.
  • They became best known world wide with the use case of Wikipedia.
  • Wikis are some of the best aggregators of information for crowds willing to be smart.
  • See also this TED Talk about the origins of the Wikipedia:

RSS

  • RSS stands for "Really Simple Syndication", and it is some standard way to receive news of the activity on some website towards an email program, instant messaging program, other websites appropriately configured to receive display those news, etc. For more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS
  • It allows the iinformation to be fetched autmatically between computer tools (websites, local computer programs, handheld devices, etc), allowing a decentralized management of the information published on different sources.



Related:


13. Assignment: Peer-Review the other actions designed & group papers

The next assignment (from the 5 pop quizes/assignments that will count as the 20% of the final grade) is to provide feedback to the actions designed by the other groups different than yours, related to the gruop final paper. If you provide some meaningful information based on what they have reported about their design, you will get the maximum grade on this assignment.

You are requested to indicate: if the action was going to be repeated in the next semester by other group of students, what would you keep from this design, and what you change

  • Things to keep:
    (strengths, opportunities)
  • Things to change:
    (weaknesses, threats)


You will find a form at the end of each page in this website of the actions designed. See links from the Final Paper page, for instance, or from the course homepage.

Page last modified on Monday 14 of November, 2016 18:01:53